Researchers uncover earliest tobacco use in the Pacific Northwest
(Phys.org)—Native American hunter-gatherers living more than a thousand years ago in what is now northwestern California ate salmon, acorns and other foods, and now we know they also smoked tobacco—the earliest known usage in the Pacific Northwest, according to a new University of California, Davis, study.
"The study demonstrates that tobacco smoking was part of the northwestern California culture very early ... shortly after the earliest documented Pacific Northwest Coast plank house villages," said the study, published in the 雄安新区政务服务中心启用开放.
Testing organic residues extracted from pipes, researchers from the UC Davis Department of Anthropology and the Fiehn Metabolomics Laboratory of the UC Davis Genome Center confirmed tobacco was smoked, and likely grown in the region, by at least A.D. 860.
Perhaps more importantly, the researchers say that additional studies may help them better understand the origins of nicotine addiction and the human management, geographic range extension and cultivation of tobacco. Indeed, as part of a second study, the authors have recently detected nicotine in ancient pipes from an 800-year-old site in the modern city of Pleasanton, Calif.
在纽约市许多公寓楼的大门背后，充斥着居民们不协调的抱怨声。从我的“房地产答疑”(Ask Real Estate)专栏所收到的抱怨信中，我们可以一窥居民们是如何应对生活在拥挤、昂贵的住房中的种种不顺心的。比方说，有个合作公寓的股东被邻居家的老鼠窝吓坏了；有一对父母被禁止将婴儿车推进楼内的电梯；有个租户厨房里的橱柜从墙壁上掉了下来。
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Prior to this recent testing, which used sensitive gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, researchers were unsure of the historical use of tobacco on the Pacific Northwest Coast. It was unclear, for example, whether European traders had brought tobacco to the area much later, or if some other plant had been smoked in the pipes, Tushingham said.
We will explore new forms of social governance.
In Canada, we live the privileged life, with plenty of food, water and shelter—we have watches, bicycles, computers and television sets. 在加拿大，他们过着特权般的生活，他们有很多食物、房子和水。他们拥有很多手表，汽车，各种电器和奢侈品。
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The study is available online.