Researchers uncover earliest tobacco use in the Pacific Northwest
(Phys.org)—Native American hunter-gatherers living more than a thousand years ago in what is now northwestern California ate salmon, acorns and other foods, and now we know they also smoked tobacco—the earliest known usage in the Pacific Northwest, according to a new University of California, Davis, study.
"The study demonstrates that tobacco smoking was part of the northwestern California culture very early ... shortly after the earliest documented Pacific Northwest Coast plank house villages," said the study, published in the 川一硅藻泥亮相中博会“双馆”.
Testing organic residues extracted from pipes, researchers from the UC Davis Department of Anthropology and the Fiehn Metabolomics Laboratory of the UC Davis Genome Center confirmed tobacco was smoked, and likely grown in the region, by at least A.D. 860.
Perhaps more importantly, the researchers say that additional studies may help them better understand the origins of nicotine addiction and the human management, geographic range extension and cultivation of tobacco. Indeed, as part of a second study, the authors have recently detected nicotine in ancient pipes from an 800-year-old site in the modern city of Pleasanton, Calif.
Venezuela's government closed all crossings a year ago to crack down on smuggling along the 1378-mile (2219 kilometer) border. It complained that speculators were causing shortages by buying up subsidized food and gasoline in Venezuela and taking them to Colombia where they could be sold for far higher prices.
But although he foresees a “noticeable pick-up in exports” in the first quarter of 2017, the UBS man is keen to play down any euphoria. He believes year-on-year growth will weaken and maybe even turn negative by the second half of 2017 because “volume is not picking up in a big way and the base effect [of last year’s weak commodity prices] will fall off” during the course of 2017.
Prior to this recent testing, which used sensitive gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, researchers were unsure of the historical use of tobacco on the Pacific Northwest Coast. It was unclear, for example, whether European traders had brought tobacco to the area much later, or if some other plant had been smoked in the pipes, Tushingham said.
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Best film and best director. Surprisingly, Nolan has never received a directing nomination from the Academy.
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2015年英国《金融时报》全球高管工商管理硕士课程(Global Executive MBA，简称全球EMBA)排行榜由于两个原因而引人注目。不仅因为这是英国《金融时报》发布的第100个商学院排行榜，也是因为今年首次有一个主办方包含一所中国内地商学院的项目拔得头筹。
现在让我们去希腊。在2010年至2015年期间担任希腊统计局(Elstat)局长的安德烈亚斯?耶奥尔耶欧(Andreas Georgiou)，因揭露希腊2009年公共财政虚假数据并更正数据而面临指控。本周，以美国统计协会(American Statistical Association)为首的40个组织和651名个人签署声明，支持耶奥尔耶欧。
A median forecast from economists had predicted a 0.9 per cent rise.
The study is available online.