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天津爆炸事件对建筑涂料行业的启发

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 公用事行业投资研究报告:建材等行业开展减量减产 严控新增产能 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

新乡市日月防水技术有限公司总工程师伏新合:电商平台忽略施工服务

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

As for his own education: He's weighing whether to enroll in university in England or maybe the U.S. to be closer to Silicon Valley. Or perhaps he'll skip college entirely and just focus on his work. 'I absolutely want to start another company,' he says. 'Serial entrepreneurs get addicted to creation. I want to be passionate. I feel really bad when I'm not doing something new.'
2. Dunkirk
“他不在情报系统监视范围内,”总理补充道。
●"Woman arrested for defecating on boss’ desk after winning the lottery"
['?nim'pl?im?nt]
朱迪·福斯特(Jodie Foster)过去也将洗手间作为最佳选择 –“它们和水龙头看起来交相辉映”–但她已经为因影片《沉默的羔羊》(The Accused and Silence of the Lambs)获得的两尊小金人找到了一个更好的归属:奖杯盒。
In this Jan. 7, 1997, file photo, Steve Jobs, chief executive of Pixar, speaks at the MacWorld trade show in San Francisco.

“这是一个目标,也是我们想经历的事情”,库里赛后表示。“这将会是一个巨大的成就,因为做一些在联盟历史上还从未发生过的事情,感觉会是非常与众不同的。你永远也不会知道,这种机会是否还会再次来过。在取得这一连串的胜利过程当中,有许多许多的不可掌控的因素,特别是在赛季的开局阶段。”
A recent example: When Gwen Stefani launched her new album Spark the Fire, Swyft created a free sticker pack and distributed it on several of its messaging apps. It was downloaded almost a million times and sent between users seven million times, resulting in 41 million impressions in 10 days. Such campaigns cost anywhere from $50,000 to $250,000 for brands, Wray says.
Rounding out the top three is Fleetwood Mac at $59.5 million. Though the band contains three men, it also boasts two high-profile ladies—Stevie Nicks and the recently-returned Christine McVie—rendering the group eligible for this list. Its On With The Show tour included 86 concerts during our scoring period, grossing well over $1 million per city.
价格:197.5万元(约合人民币1264万元)
新兴市场投资者不需要被提醒美联储(Fed)对新兴市场资产的重要性——不是吗?

Footnotes

  • 李克强:政府服务必须围着市场主体和人民群众转
  • Officials with the State Administration of Press, Publication, Radio, Film and Television (SAPPRFT) said the film industry in China kept a steady development momentum in 2016 amid the "new normal" of the country's economic development.

清华大学公共管理学院主任杨燕绥表示,这4万亿元养老金结余很多都在个人账户里面,现收现付的养老保险制度遇到了抚养比的挑战。
'It surprised me, but it's a good sign for Tencent getting abroad, because in particular WeChat is a combination of WhatsApp and Instagram, so it's a unique value proposition that is probably pretty good for emerging market consumers,' he said.
James Bond 23 may still be quite a ways away from actually happening, as star Daniel Craig is commited to three chapters in the Millennium Trilogy, starting with the currently in-production The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo. There is currently no talk of hiring someone else to play James Bond, but if Craig is to reprise the role a third time, we still won't see James Bond 23 until 2014 at the earliest.
Jack Ma, founder and executive chairman of e-commerce giant Alibaba Group topped the ranking of China's richest IT people for the third consecutive year.
6. 米兰达?可儿
Illuminati是什么?

贵州重拳整治房地产市场乱象 严厉打击投机炒房和“黑中介”

References

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